Research Articles (Published)


Compiled and Edited by:
Dr. Syed Aftab Hussain Shah & Dr. Muhammad Akram Shaikh

S#. Authors Findings/opinions/suggestions References
1. (Anjum, 2020) The chapter describes emotional stresses owing to COVID-19 pandemic being faced and simultaneously preparing assignments for online classes. Anjum, G. (2020). EMOTIONAL BURDEN & PSYCHOLOGICAL CAPITAL IN THE TIMES OF COVID-19: A STUDY IN THE ACADEMIC CONTEXT OF PAKISTAN (pp. 16-21).
2. (N. Ahmed et al., 2020) In this study, a total of 322 medical undergraduates (73.9% females and 26.1% males) aged between 18- 28 years participated in the survey, from Dow University of Health and Sciences, Jinnah Sindh Medical University and Karachi Medical and Dental College, Karachi in the percentage order of 55.6%, 20.5% and 23.9% , respectively. Almost 78.6% medical students showed willingness to treat COVID-19 patients on the eve of crisis. The need of better health care facilities was badly felt in the study. Ahmed, N., Khan, A., Gianchand, N., Abdullah, H., Moizuddin, S., & Khan, J. (2020). CONCERNS OF UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL STUDENTS TOWARDS AN OUTBREAK OF COVID-19. 6, 5055-5062. doi: 10.24327/23956429.ijcmpr202003863
3. (Abbasi, 2020) The editorial highlights about the origin of COVID-19 from bats, expects finding of missing link between bats and humans and offers preventive measures as a safeguard from the disease. Abbasi, M. A. (2020). WUHAN CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19): YET ANOTHER BAT VIRUS ZOONOTIC. Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad, 32(1), 1-2.
4. (Waris, Khan, Ali, Ali, & Baset, 2020) The study highlights the onset of disease, describes the global and Pakistan epidemic status. It further gives details of hospitals and facilities available at Pakistan. Waris, A., Khan, A. U., Ali, M., Ali, A., & Baset, A. (2020). COVID-19 outbreak: Current Scenario of Pakistan. New Microbes and New Infections, 100681.
5. (Adem, Eyupoglu, Sarfraz, Rasul, & Ali, 2020) This study evaluated the efficacy of medicinal plant-based bioactive compounds against COVID-19 main protease (Mpro) by molecular docking using Molegro Virtual Docker 7. COVID-19 Mpro was docked with 80 flavonoid compounds and the binding energies were obtained from the docking of (PDB ID: 6LU7: Resolution 2.16 Å) with the native ligand. hesperidin, rutin, diosmin, apiin, diacetylcurcumin, (E)-1-(2-Hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-[3-[(E)-3-(2-hydroxy-4- methoxyphenyl)-3-oxoprop-1-enyl]phenyl]prop-2-en-1-one, and beta,beta'-(4-Methoxy-1,3- phenylene)bis(2'-hydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxyacrylophenone have been found as more effective on COVID-19 than nelfinavir. The use of medicinal potential of these compounds is proposed. Adem, S., Eyupoglu, V., Sarfraz, I., Rasul, A., & Ali, M. (2020). Identification of potent COVID-19 main protease (Mpro) inhibitors from natural polyphenols: An in silico strategy unveils a hope against CORONA.
6. (Afsar, 2020) This is very interesting study and enlists prevalent drugs/medicines which have been used in past against other viruses and expects hope of finding some cure against the COVID-19 by health professionals. Afsar, N. A. (2020). The looming pandemic of COVID-19: What therapeutic options do we have now? Journal of the Chinese Medical Association.
7. (Ahmad et al., 2020) The editorial gives history of coronaviruses and discusses origin of disease from animals to humans with special reference to China. Ahmad, T., Khan, M., Haroon, T. H. M., Nasir, S., Hui, J., Bonilla-Aldana, D. K., & Rodriguez-Morales, A. J. (2020). COVID-19: Zoonotic aspects. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease.
8. (T. Ahmed et al., 2020) The review gives the COVID-19 spread and replication mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 and potential risks and precautionary measures to be taken with focus on China. Ahmed, T., Noman, M., Almatroudi, A., Shahid, M., Khurshid, M., Tariq, F., . . . Li, B. (2020). Coronavirus Disease 2019 Assosiated Pneumonia in China: Current Status and Future Prospects: Preprints.
9. (Moiz, Umer, & Lali, 2020) This manual paper describes an interesting model “Drive-Thru Testing”, which is a novel system for screening and testing people for COVID-19 outside a healthcare institution based in District South, Karachi City, Sindh Province, Pakistan. The systems has been covered in both print and electronic media and appreciated. Moiz, M., Umer, R., & Lali, N. (2020). A How-To For A Drive-Thru for COVID-19 Testing Facility for Urban Pandemic Response - An Operational Paper.
10. (I. Ali, 2020) This is an Op-Ed (opposite the editorial page), which states the role of medical anthropology in respect of the current outbreak and spread of COVID-19. The study quotes a finding wherein the stress is given on least three respects: “program design and formative research; interpretation investigation and response; and event analysis and post hoc assessment in the context of COVID-19. Ali, I. (2020). The COVID-19 Pandemic: Making Sense of Rumor and Fear. Medical Anthropology, 1-4. doi: 10.1080/01459740.2020.1745481
11. (S. Ali, Zeb, Khan, & Muhammad, 2020) This review states that the dental staff is at a higher risk for COVID-19 infection due to exposure to the aerosol and splatter produced by the subjects during a dental procedure. The study suggests the use of antiseptic hand wash, rubber dam isolation, and mouth rinse for patient before dental procedure. The use of gloves, protective eye wears, gowns, and masks is prerequisite. Ali, S., Zeb, U., Khan, M., & Muhammad, A. (2020). Transmission Routes and Infection Control of Novel Coronavirus-2019 in Dental Clinics–A Review. Journal of Islamabad Medical & Dental College, 9(1), 65-72.
12. (M. Y. Ali & Gatiti) This is an interesting article and highlights the role of librarians in such kind of pandemic scenario particularly in the context of Pakistan. General awareness and provision of online services is suggested. Ali, M. Y., & Gatiti, P. The COVID-19 (Coronavirus) Pandemic: Reflections on the Roles of Librarians and Information Professionals. Health Information & Libraries Journal, n/a(n/a). doi: 10.1111/hir.12307
13. (Safdar & Chohan, 2019) This working paper highlights the structural challenges which will be faced by Pakistan in the prospect of its economy owing to onset and post-scenario circumstances of COVID-19. The longer terms hurdles being confronted ahead are discussed. Safdar, A., & Chohan, U. W. (2019). What Ails Pakistan’s Economy? The Problems beyond Coronavirus.
14. (Arif & Ali, 2020) The article highlights the proper guidelines, preventive measures and suggests government role to aware properly against the COVID-19. Arif, T. B., & Ali, A. (2020). Harmonizing the COVID-19 cacophony: People need guidance. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 1-6.
15. (A. Arshad & Afzal, 2020) The editorial describes different preventive strategies and suggests following proper safety measures against the COVID-19. Arshad, A., & Afzal, S. (2020). An update on preventive measures of COVID-19 in Pakistan. Annals of King Edward Medical University, 26(1).
16. (Hamdullah Khadim Sheikh, Tanzila Arshad, Zainab Sher Mohammad, Iqra Arshad, & Mohtasheemul Hassan, 2020) This is very interesting study which has used the structure of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) for docking with Anti-HIV protease inhibitor drug molecules within pH 4-8. The study revealed that the binding energy and mode of interaction of the potential ligands with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, was dependent on variation of pH. Two selected protease inhibitors (Indinavir and Saquinavir) showed differential binding characteristics with changing pH. The study hopes that differential binding behavior can lead to development of pH selective potent drug molecules for binding with viral protease at lowered intracellular pH of virus infected cell. Sheikh, H. K., Arshad, T., Mohammad, Z. S., Arshad, I., & Hassan, M. (2020). pH Dependent Differential Binding Behavior of Prtotease Inhibitor Molecular Drugs for SARS-COV-2.
17. (N. Arshad, Naqi, & Kumar, 2020) The review discusses about the spread of COVID-19 from China to rest of the world within 3-4 months. Arshad, N., Naqi, S. A., & Kumar, J. (2020). A novel coronavirus transmission from China to Pakistan via different countries; A review. The Professional Medical Journal, 27(04), 876-879.
18. Ahmed (Ahmed, Shakeel, & K.K, 2020) This is also vital study which presents a model through estimation of price-demand relationship of three commodities including hand sanitizers, face-masks and vitamin-c supplements against the COVID-19. The study suggests two aspects pertinent to policy: i) urgent policy check/control to stabilize and subsidize the prices of these COVID-19 prevention- commodities and ii) trade/importing these COVID-19 prevention-commodities to fill the potential demand-supply gap of shortage that cause exponential price increase. Ahmed, A., Shakeel, M., & K.K, A. (2020). Least square models with structural breaks for price-demand relationship of prevention commodities of COVID-19 disease.
19. (Asif Javed, 2020) The policy study reviews the global economic recession due to onset of COCID-19 pandemic. The world economy including Pakistan is speculated to dwindle in services sector as well as manufacturing sectors owing to the global value chains. China’s economy will have profound effect on the Pakistan’s economy. Javed, A. (2020). Policy Review Economic Impact of Coronavirus and Revival Measures: Way Forward for Pakistan.
20. (Badshah, Ullah, Badshah, & Ahmad, 2020) The study reports the COVID-19 incidence and an initial spread of COVID-19 in pilgrims arriving from Iran to Pakistan and states Government’s remedial measures at Taftan border. Badshah, S. L., Ullah, A., Badshah, S. H., & Ahmad, I. (2020). Spread of Novel Coronavirus by Returning Pilgrims from Iran to Pakistan. Journal of Travel Medicine.
21. Baig (A. M. Baig, 2020) The editorial commentary states the neurological ramifications of the COVID-19 quoting China’s scenario. The drastic neurological effects, being unnoticed, cannot be denied. The loss of smell and taste that occur during the early phase of COVID-19 may be considered in this regard. The laboratory tests comprising serum urea, creatinine, electrolytes, and blood gases (PO2-PCO2) are proposed for primary or secondary involvement of the CNS in COVID-19-affected patients. Baig, A. M. (2020). Neurological manifestations in COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics.
22. (M. A. Baig, 2020) The letter to editor highlights the importance of strict adherence to personal protective equipment (PPE), exclusively comprising of N95 or preferably a powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) while dealing patients in negative isolation units. The conventional methods of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (CPAP; continuous positive airway pressure /BiPAP; Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure) are inadvisable due to aerosol generation, it is suggested to secure a definitive airway with extreme precaution. Baig, M. A. (2020). The COVID-19 Intubation and Ventilation Pathway (CiVP); a Commentary. Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, 8(1), 37.
23. (A. M. Baig, 2020) The study reports that after outbreak, similar to SARS-CoV, COVID-19 virus exploits the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to enter inside the cells. The study provides evidence by investigating the density of the expression levels of ACE2 in the CNS, the host−virus interaction, and relating it to the pathogenesis and complications seen in the recent cases resulting from the COVID-19 outbreak. Baig, A. M. (2020). Neurological manifestations in COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics.
24. (Bhutta, Basnyat, Saha, & Laxminarayan, 2020) The editorial describes that COVID-19 has exposed clear gaps in public health preparedness for infectious disease outbreaks in South Asia. The lack of a vigorous infectious disease surveillance and control system is particularly evident. Bhutta, Z. A., Basnyat, B., Saha, S., & Laxminarayan, R. (2020). Covid-19 risks and response in South Asia: British Medical Journal Publishing Group.
25. (Bukhari, Bukhari, Syed, & SHAH, 2020) The study evaluated a total of 278 images of chest X-rays by applying ResNet-50 convolutional neural network architectures. The digital images were acquired from the public repositories provided by University of Montreal and National Institutes of Health. These images were grouped as normal (n=93), pneumonia (n=96) and COVID- 19 (n=89). The analysis of the data revealed that computer vision based program achieved diagnostic accuracy of 98.18 %, and F1-score of 98.19. The analysis is recommended for health professionals. Bukhari, S. U. K., Bukhari, S. S. K., Syed, A., & SHAH, S. S. H. (2020). The diagnostic evaluation of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for the assessment of chest X-ray of patients infected with COVID-19. medRxiv.
26. (Butt, Siddique, An, & Tong, 2020) This excellent study developed a SARS-CoV-2 detection protocol which can be performed within minimal resources and timeframe. The reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) methodology was implemented for the qualitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. In order to improve the detection capability, the RT-LAMP assay was developed to simultaneously amplify two viral genes: ORF1a and N. A total of 45 SARS-CoV-2 associated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 25 non-COVID-19 cases were enrolled. Viral RNA was extracted from the nasopharyngeal swab samples and analyzed simultaneously using PCR and RT-LAMP protocols. Overall, SARS-CoV-2 dual gene RT-LAMP assay was found to be 95% accurate in detecting positive cases and showed no cross-reactivity or false-positive results in non-COVID- 19 samples. Further evaluation on larger and multi-centric cohorts is currently underway to establish the diagnostic accuracy and subsequent implementation into clinical practice and at point-of-care settings. Butt, A. M., Siddique, S., An, X., & Tong, Y. (2020). Development of a dual-gene loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) detection assay for SARS-CoV-2: A preliminary study. medRxiv.
27. (Chowdhury et al., 2020) This collaborative study created a public database of X-ray images using three public databases and also by collecting images from recently published articles. The database contained a mixture of 190 COVID-19, 1345 viral pneumonia and 1341 normal chest x-ray images. An image augmented training set was created with 2500 images of each category for training and validating four different pre-trained deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). The classification accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and precision for both the schemes were 98.3%, 96.7%, 100%, 100% and 98.3%, 96.7%, 99%, 100%, respectively. The high accuracy of this computer- aided diagnostic tool can significantly improve the speed and accuracy of diagnosing cases with COVID-19. This would be highly useful in this pandemic where disease burden and need for preventive measures are at odds with available resources. Chowdhury, M. E., Rahman, T., Khandakar, A., Mazhar, R., Kadir, M. A., Mahbub, Z. B., . . . Al-Emadi, N. (2020). Can AI help in screening Viral and COVID-19 pneumonia? arXiv preprint arXiv:2003.13145.
28. (Mamoon, 2020a) The study reports that denial to social distancing policy decision is speculated by public due to low COVID-19 incidence in Pakistan than USA; however, it will be premature to preclude this factor. Mamoon, D. (2020a). Patterns in COVID 19 Cases in Pakistan.
29. (Mamoon, 2020b) The brief states the importance of early measures by Government of Pakistan and subsequent provincial governments to curtail the spread of COVID 19 virus to improve the probabilities for early recovery. Mamoon, D. (2020b). Risks and Opportunities for Pakistan amid COVID 19.
30. (Chohan, 2020) The working paper presents limited forecasting through scenario analysis using an aggregate demand approach for Pakistan. The aim is to illustrate the possible multi-durational economic impact due to COVID-19 pandemic. The study suggests low economic turnout during FY20, but rapid global and local recovery rates may possibly stimulate a resumption of economic activity in FY21. Chohan, U. W. (2020). Forecasting the Economic Impact of Coronavirus on Developing Countries: Case of Pakistan.
31. (Durrani & Zaheer, 2020) For screening purpose RT-qPCR based test are used as an initial detections assay for COVID-19. The test is expensive, time consuming and not suitable for mass scale screening/ confirmation requirement. The development of Immunoassay procedures (liquid Phase tests or bed side 10-20 minute strip test) is also an alternate, cheaper and easy to conduct in the lab. Pakistan has the capability and expertise to produce immunoassay-based kits. Durrani, F., & Zaheer, F. (2020). An Approach to Screen COVID-19 Patients: With Special Reference to Pakistan.
32. (Farooq & Hafeez, 2020) This study aims to build open source and open access datasets and present an accurate Convolutional Neural Network framework for differentiating COVID-19 cases from other pneumonia cases. In short, study has presented a computationally efficient and highly accurate model for multi-class classification of three different infection types, i.e., progressive resizing, cyclical learning rate finding and discriminative learning rates from along with Normal individuals. This model can help in early screening of COVID-19 cases and help reduce burden on healthcare systems. Farooq, M., & Hafeez, A. (2020). Covid-resnet: A deep learning framework for screening of covid19 from radiographs. arXiv preprint arXiv:2003.14395.
33. (Haider et al., 2020) This study has used Computer Aided Drug Design (CADD) based approach to identify the drug-like compounds - inhibiting the replication of main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2. The database search using online tool “ZINC pharmer” retrieved ~1500 compounds based on pharmacophore features. Lipinski’s rule was applied to further evaluate the drug-like compounds, followed by molecular docking-based screening, and the selection of screening ligand complex with Mpro based on S- score (higher than reference inhibitor) and root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) value (less than reference inhibitor) using Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) system. This study identified ~200 compounds possessing strong interaction with Mpro of SARS-CoV-2. After evaluating their binding energy using the MOE LigX algorithm, three compounds (ZINC20291569, ZINC90403206, ZINC95480156) were identified that showed highest binding energy with Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 and strong inhibition effect than the reference inhibitor. The study suggests that these candidate “drug-like compounds” have greater potential to stop the replication of SARS-CoV-2, hence might lead to the cure of COVID-19. Haider, Z., Subhani, M. M., Farooq, M. A., Ishaq, M., Khalid, M., Khan, R. S. A., & Niazi, A. K. (2020). In Silico discovery of novel inhibitors against main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 using pharmacophore and molecular docking based virtual screening from ZINC database: Preprints.
34. (M. Hussain et al., 2020) This study aimed to explore the binding of the proteins encoded by different human ACE2 allelic variants with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The coding variants of ACE2 corresponding to the reported binding sites for its attachment with coronavirus spike protein were selected and molecular models of these variants were constructed by homology modeling. The models were then superimposed over the native ACE2 and ACE2-spike protein complex, to observe structural changes in the ACE2 variants and their intermolecular interactions with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, respectively. The study provides data for structural basis of potential resistance against SARS-CoV-2 infection driven by ACE2 allelic variants. Genome sequencing for the coronavirus has been conducted in two separate trials, in Karachi and Lahore. The studies reveal that the virus is mutative, which means that “it can adjust to local conditions” which are slightly different from Wuhan (Professor Dr. Saeed Khan, a virologist at Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS) in Karachi, and a member of the team). The genetic sequencing of the virus – obtained from a locally-infected 15-year-old boy – by collaborating with the International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences (ICCBS) in Karachi. Dr. Akram confirmed that the tests showed that the coronavirus’ strain in Pakistan was mutative but was not “clinically significant (only 3-5 percent mutations).” Two types of coronavirus strains, S-Strain and L-Strain, are spreading around the world. The study shows that the L-strain was derived from the older S-strain. The genetic sequencing shows that the virus was L-strain that is more aggressive and spreads rapidly (Professor Dr. Saeed Khan). Researchers from the DUHS, Karachi, Pakistan have discovered that certain variants of a human gene may offer resistance against the novel coronavirus, also known as SARS-CoV-2. According to their findings, which were published in the Journal of Medical Virology (M. Hussain et al.), two variants of the ACE2 (angiotensin I converting enzyme 2) gene — that has been established as the functional receptor for the novel coronavirus — may make a person more resistant to the infection. The mutations were observed in the ACE2 gene/protein of 1000s of humans via genomic data mining. The ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) protein is a molecule to which the SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, binds at the very initial phase of the infection. With the help of extensive structural modeling and docking techniques, the researchers predicted that two mutations, S19P and E329G, in ACE2 might make humans (with these mutations) naturally resistant to the COVID-19 infection. Screening of COVID-19 patients for the presence of these mutations will, in turn, help in predicting the prognosis of the disease and determine the allocation of the limiting resources. Dr Mushtaq Hussain, head of the research team, said that in data mining, the human genomes of individuals from China, Latin America, and some European countries are included. It is worth mentioning here that in the above analysis, the frequency of the mutations in ACE-2 was very low. Keeping in mind that the countries mentioned above have been severely affected by the coronavirus. Hussain, M., Jabeen, N., Raza, F., Shabbir, S., Baig, A. A., Amanullah, A., & Aziz, B. (2020). Structural Variations in Human ACE2 may Influence its Binding with SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein. Journal of Medical Virology.
35. (T. Hussain, Khan, Gilani, & Raza, 2020) The study used internet based collection of data by filling a self- designed questionnaire that was responded by 1132 subjects. The study concludes that almost after a month of the coronavirus outbreak in Pakistan, above 50% to up to 90% of the respondents were well aware of the cause, spread and control of the disease which is an indicator of effective public awareness campaigns throughout the country largely based on media drive. Hussain, T., Khan, S., Gilani, U., & Raza, S. (2020). Evaluation of General Awareness Among Professionals Regarding COVID-19: A Survey Based Study from Pakistan.
36. (Hyder, 2020) This eBook is a collection of articles related to prevalence of COVID-19 in Pakistan and its economic effects in different sectors. This highlights industry response to manufacturing of ventilators, mental health, past and present epidemiological comparison, monetary policy, fiscal deficits, social prospects, policing, commercial contracts, gender analysis, multi-sectoral impact, health and marketing communications. Hyder, A. (2020). SHORT NOTES ON THE ECONOMY DURING THE COVID-19 CRISIS.
37. (Imdad et al., 2020) This study evaluated the awareness level of healthcare workers toward novel COVID-2019 in Pakistan. The WHO criteria based questionnaire was responded by 650 participants from Pakistan including Sindh, Punjab, Baluchistan and Gilgit-Baltistan. The study concluded that Healthcare workers had insufficient knowledge of preventive measures and infection control and suggested awareness about COVID-19 at mass level among the healthcare professionals. Imdad, B., Abbas, U., Qureshi, A., Mohsin, S., Shireen, Amna, Hussain, A., . . . Imdad, N. (2020). Evaluation of the awareness level of Healthcare workers toward NCOVID-2019 in Pakistan. medRxiv. doi:
38. (Inamullah et al., 2020) This study is based on the data acquired from provincial heath directorate Government of Baluchistan and from Chinese health commission daily update website from the period of 28th February to 3rd March 2020. The study describes arrival of Pakistani pilgrims arrived from Iran with probable COVID-19infliction. However, their study includes travel from China to Pakistan too which was avoided owing to mutual consensus between China and Pakistan. Inamullah, S., Ashrafuddin, S., Ahmed, S. B., Rehmatullah, R., Naz, F., Muhammad, S. A., & Tareen, S. (2020). TRANSMISSION OF COVID-19 BY PASSENGER’S DESTINATIONS FROM IRAN, CHINA AND AFGHANISTAN: HIGHER RISKS OF NOVEL CORONAVIRUS INTO BALUCHISTAN, PAKISTAN. European Journal of Biology, 5(1), 1-8.
39. (Z. Khan, Muhammad, Ahmed, & Rahman, 2020) This study explores COVID-19 epidemiology, WHO and CDC preventive measures to follow to curtail the disease. The role of pharmaceutical sector is also described. Khan, Z., Muhammad, K., Ahmed, A., & Rahman, H. (2020). Coronavirus outbreaks: prevention and management recommendations. Drugs & Therapy Perspectives, 1-3.
40. (S. A. Khan, Zia, Ashraf, Uddin, & Ul-Haq, 2020) This study employed computational drug design methods to identify Chymotrypsin-like protease inhibitors from FDA approved antiviral drugs and in-house database of natural and drug-like compounds of synthetic origin. The study identified three FDA approved drugs (Remdesivir, Saquinavir and Darunavir) and two natural compounds (flavone and coumarine derivatives) as promising hits. MD simulation and binding free energy calculations were performed to evaluate the dynamic behavior, stability of protein-ligand contact, and binding affinity of the hit compounds. The study concludes that the identified compounds can inhibit the function of Chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) of Coronavirus. The study is in-line with the concept of finding the new inhibitors against the vital pathway of the corona virus to expedite the process of drug discovery Khan, S. A., Zia, K., Ashraf, S., Uddin, R., & Ul-Haq, Z. (2020). Identification of Chymotrypsin-like Protease Inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Via Integrated Computational Approach. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics(just-accepted), 1-13.
41. (S. Khan, Khan, Maqsood, Hussain, & Zeeshan, 2020) This study conducted a cross-sectional survey, a self-designed questionnaire was distributed among 302 health care workers including physicians (10.9%), nurses (1.32%), lab staff (1.65%) and academic individuals including faculty and students (86.42%) of different organizations. This study concluded that individuals belonging to the front-line workers and high literacy groups are not prepared for the alarming situation in the country. The effective implementation of infection control programs were suggested comprising awareness, training, and cooperation of individuals. Khan, S., Khan, M., Maqsood, K., Hussain, T., & Zeeshan, M. (2020). Is Pakistan prepared for the COVID-19 epidemic? A questionnaire-based survey. Journal of Medical Virology.
42. (Kabir, Afzal, Khan, & Ahmed, 2020) The editorial highlights the issue of 70.8 million forcibly displaced people in the world. There are 40.3 million internally displaced people (IDPs), 25.9 million refugees and 3.5 million asylum seekers. These refugee camps are mainly monitored and run by UNHCR. The funding system of UNHCR is entirely dependent on voluntary donations from different rich governments across the globe. The economic crunch may affect donation programs from donors. Kabir, M., Afzal, M. S., Khan, A., & Ahmed, H. (2020). COVID-19 economic cost; impact on forcibly displaced people. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease.
43. (Majid, 2020) The study highlights effect of COVID-19 on global supply chain including Pakistan. Pakistan has a huge reliance on China as their largest trading partner and also shares a stretch of common border. Majid, A. (2020). Pakistan’s Supply Chain Resilience.
44. (Meo et al., 2020) This study describes rising trends in the transmission, prevalence and mortality rate due to coronavirus COVID-19. It suggests public health mediations, good hygienic conditions, social distancing and movement limitations for controlling the COVID-19 epidemic. Meo, S. A., Al-Khlaiwi, T., Usmani, A. M., Meo, A. S., Klonoff, D. C., & Hoang, T. D. (2020). Biological and Epidemiological Trends in the Prevalence and Mortality due to Outbreaks of Novel Coronavirus COVID-19. Journal of King Saud University-Science.
45. (Rukh, Nafees, & Khan) The study states that partial lockdown in Pakistan has worked effectively and 19 years and below age group people were infected less than 20-34 years. At the same time, this lockdown is not affordable for Pakistan. Rukh, L., Nafees, M., & Khan, F. Review of Covid-19 Related Deaths and Recoveries for Identification of Suitable Measures as Alternative of Partial Lockdown.
46. (F. Mukhtar & Mukhtar, 2020) This communication describes the COVID-19 epidemic in China and other countries when no case was reported in Pakistan and states readiness of Government of Pakistan to curtail the disease onset. Mukhtar, F., & Mukhtar, N. (2020). CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19): LET’S PREVENT NOT PANIC. Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad, 32(1).
47. (S. Mukhtar, 2020) This commentary presents an overview of the mental health and Health Belief Model (perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived threat, perceived barriers, perceived benefits, and perceived self-efficacy) in terms of perceived stress, stress appraisal and coping strategies for general public and medical staff during COVID-19. In Pakistan, COVID-19 suspected, or infected subjects practiced self-isolation and social-distancing at home, or were admitted to healthcare facility with specific infrastructure. Mukhtar, S. (2020). Mental Health and Emotional Impact of COVID-19: Applying Health Belief Model for Medical Staff to General Public of Pakistan. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.
48. (Musa, Ahmad, Khan, Haroon, & Wei, 2020) The editorial describes that people with travel history of China and other countries were the probable source of COVID-19 pandemic. Musa, T. H., Ahmad, T., Khan, M., Haroon, H., & Wei, P. (2020). Global outbreak of 2019-nCoV, a new challenge? The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 14(03), 244-245.
49. (Naeem, Irfan, & Javed, 2020) The editorial highlights Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approaches that need to be adopted in the crisis situation of COVID-19 affected people. Naeem, F., Irfan, M., & Javed, A. (2020). COPING WITH COVID-19: URGENT NEED FOR BUILDING RESILIENCE THROUGH COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY. KHYBER MEDICAL UNIVERSITY JOURNAL, 12(1), 1-3
50. (Al Nsour et al., 2020) The editorial states that countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) have a high vulnerability and variable capacity to respond to outbreak of COVID-19. The countries have addressed the need for increasing capacity in the areas of surveillance and rapid response to public health threats. The Global Health Development (GHD)/Eastern Mediterranean Public Health Network (EMPHNET) and the EMR’s Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETPs) should intensively work to assist countries with poor health care facilities. Al Nsour, M., Bashier, H., Al Serouri, A., Malik, E., Khader, Y., Saeed, K., . . . Assarag, B. (2020). The Role of the Global Health Development/Eastern Mediterranean Public Health Network and the Eastern Mediterranean Field Epidemiology Training Programs in Preparedness for COVID-19. JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, 6(1), e18503.
51. (Nafees & Khan) This study evaluates COVID-19 spread from Iran to Pakistan and the early remedies taken by the Government of Pakistan. The study suggests establishment of modern quarantine facilities at the exit and entrance points on border as well as in major hospitals and development of database for the daily-wagers for financial assistance in future. Nafees, M., & Khan, F. Pakistan's Response to COVID-19 Pandemic and Efficacy of Quarantine and Partial Lockdown: Facts, Hopes and Expectations.
52. (Pasha, Fatima, & Ghouri, 2020) The letter to the editor highlights that for gastroenterologists who manage patients suffering from Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD), there is concern regarding their ongoing immunosuppressive therapies which could render them more susceptible to acquire COVID-19 infection and develop complications like acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It suggests counseling, precaution and tele-health advice for patients to minimize the risk. Pasha, S. B., Fatima, H., & Ghouri, Y. A. (2020). Management of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in the Wake of COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.
53. (PIDE, 2020) This E-Book from PIDE presents different opinions and action plan regarding COVID-19 in Pakistan. It highlights slow or shut down approach, quarantine efforts, vulnerable sectoral analysis, labor market, monitoring, directions for pharmaceutical sector, heterodox solution model, trade, and challenges for higher education. It also provides details of PIDE COVID-19 blog articles. PIDE. (2020). PIDE, COVID-19 E-Book Nadeem-ul-Haque & Durr-e-Nayab (Eds.), (pp. 102). Retrieved from
54. (N. Khan, Fahad, Naushad, & Muhammad, 2020) The study reviews climate impact on the corona virus in the world. Both warm and humid seasons may have negative relationship with corona virus increasing in the world. Various remedial suggestions are given to combat the COVID-19. Khan, N., Fahad, S., Naushad, M., & Muhammad, A. (2020). Climate Impact on Corona Virus in the World. 35.
55. (Noreen et al., 2020) This preprint study describes the trend of COVID-19 infection growth and doubling time in Pakistan from an early containment state to much belated exponential rise pattern. The findings were based on analysis of the publicly available data on COVID-19 from Ministry of National Health Services Regulations and Coordination COVID-19 dashboard and National Institute Health Islamabad(NIH) situation reports from 26th February to 30th March 2020. Noreen, D., Khan, F., Dil, S., Niazi, S., Maken, Z., Naveed, I., & Khan, N. (2020). Trend Analysis of exponential increase of Covid-19 cases in Pakistan (Preprint).
56. (Qasim, Ahmad, Zhang, Yasir, & Azhar, 2020) This study presents a data model to predict the size of COVID19 in Pakistan. The mathematical model followed the time sequence mean weighting (TSMW) to estimate the expected future number of COVID19 cases in Pakistan until 29th April 2020. The study suggests that data collection have to be maintained in real time for future work. Qasim, M., Ahmad, W., Zhang, S., Yasir, M., & Azhar, M. (2020). Data model to predict prevalence of COVID-19 in Pakistan. medRxiv.
57. (Qasim, Ahmad, Yoshida, Gould, & Yasir, 2020) This study used COVID-19 data from Japan, China and the Korea and Successive Approximation Method was applied. The mean ratio (η) of expected cases was found 0.485, while the mean ratio for deaths was found to be 0.49. The study speculates that whole Iranian population is at greater risk of COVID-19. Qasim, M., Ahmad, W., Yoshida, M., Gould, M., & Yasir, M. (2020). Analysis of the Worldwide Corona Virus (COVID-19) Pandemic Trend; A Modelling Study to Predict Its Spread. medRxiv.
58. (Qazi et al., 2020) The study evaluated the influence of information (formal and informal) sources on situational awareness of the public for adopting health-protective behaviors such as social distancing. It used questionnaire-based survey. It found that adoption of social distancing practices is an outcome of situational awareness which is achieved by the information sources. Qazi, A., Qazi, J., Naseer, K., Zeeshan, M., Hardaker, G., Maitama, J. Z., & Haruna, K. (2020). Analyzing Situational Awareness through Public Opinion to Predict Adoption of Social Distancing Amid Pandemic COVID-19. Journal of Medical Virology.
59. (Qureshi et al., 2020) The letter to editor highlights probable COVID-19 implications for travelers to Pakistan from abroad. It mentions that Government of Pakistan has installed thermal scanners at four major airports in the country including Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar for screening the travelers on arrival to Pakistan as preventive measure. Qureshi, U. U. R., Saleem, S., Khan, A., Afzal, M. S., Ali, M. S., Ahmed, H., & Ahmed, H. (2020). Outbreak of novel Corona virus (2019-nCoV); implications for travelers to Pakistan. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 101571.
60. (Rana, Mukhtar, & Mukhtar, 2020) The letter to editor highlights that COVID-19 fighting health care professionals are facing stress related psychological issues which need to be addressed. Rana, W., Mukhtar, S., & Mukhtar, S. (2020). Mental Health of Medical Workers in Pakistan during the Pandemic COVID-19 Outbreak. Asian Journal of Psychiatry.
61. (Raza, Rasheed, & Rashid, 2020) The study states that SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Recovered) model of epidemiological analysis predicts that almost 90 million world population will be infected in the coming days with 5% critical cases that need health care facilities. Regarding Pakistan, it suggests mass testing, quarantine, isolation and social distancing. It stresses upon the effective coordination among all the stakeholders concerned. Raza, S., Rasheed, M. A., & Rashid, M. K. (2020). Transmission Potential and Severity of COVID-19 in Pakistan.
62. (Saif-ur-Rehman, Shafique, Ihsan, & Liu, 2020) This significant study explores tracking of the evolutionary ancestors and different evolutionary strategies that were genetically adapted by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Whole-genome analysis revealed that SARS-CoV-2 was the descendant of Bat SARS/SARS-like CoVs and bats served as a natural reservoir. It pioneered to identify 9 putative recombination patterns in SARS-CoV-2 , which encompass spike glycoprotein, RdRp, helicase and ORF3a. Six recombination regions were spotted in the S gene and are undoubtedly important for evolutionary survival, meanwhile this permitted the virus to modify superficial antigenicity to find a way from immune reconnaissance in animals and adapt to a human host. Saif-ur-Rehman, Shafique, L., Ihsan, A., & Liu, Q. (2020). Evolutionary Trajectory for the Emergence of Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Pathogens, 9(3), 240.
63. (Ismail, Ahmad, & Azam, 2020) This study characterizes SARS- CoV-2 spike glycoprotein by employing immune-informatics techniques to put forward potential B and T cell epitopes, followed by the use of epitopes in construction of a multi-epitope peptide vaccine construct (MEPVC). Stable conformation of the MEPVC with a representative innate immune TLR3 receptor was observed involving strong hydrophobic and hydrophilic chemical interactions, along with enhanced contribution from salt-bridges towards inter-molecular stability. The designed MEPVC has tremendous potential for providing protective immunity against COVID-19 and should be considered in experimental studies. Ismail, S., Ahmad, S., & Azam, S. S. (2020). Immuno-informatics Characterization SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein for Prioritization of Epitope based Multivalent Peptide Vaccine. bioRxiv.
64. (Saif, 2020) The study presents the dynamics of COVID-19 outbreak in Italy and USA, in comparison with China, and the early response of the countries. The mathematical techniques make it possible to calculate the rate of growth of the cases efficiently, and provide a good understanding of future trends in Italy and USA. The evolution of the real time data makes it possible to analyse the suitability of steps taken to eradicate the pandemic by the countries. Day to day development of the coronavirus cases in Italy and USA were considered in context of the population pyramid and the population density, which led to understand possible difference in the number of effected population. Saif, F. (2020). Signature of State measures on the COVID-19 Pandemic in China, Italy, and USA. medRxiv.
65. (Salik) The policy review provides insight into the ways how COVID-19 spread can impact remittance flows and what should be the policy options to mitigate this impact. It concludes that a potential decline in remittance flows for Pakistan can profess a far-reaching impact on the economy and society at large at micro level (living standards, savings, investments, expenditure on food, housing, education and health) and macro level (potential decline in remittance flows). Salik, K. M. Policy Review Remittances and COVID-19: Is Pakistan ready for a likely decline in flows?
66. (Saqlain, Munir, Ahmed, Tahir, & Kamran, 2020) The commentary states about the readiness of Government of Pakistan to contain COVID-19 including a system to screen every passenger who had traveled directly or indirectly from China and other infected countries, including South Korea, Japan, and Thailand. It suggests that health care system should be revitalized and disease awareness plans should be fostered. Saqlain, M., Munir, M. M., Ahmed, A., Tahir, A. H., & Kamran, S. (2020). Is Pakistan prepared to tackle the coronavirus epidemic? Drugs & Therapy Perspectives, 1-2.
67. (S. A. Ali, Baloch, Ahmed, Ali, & Iqbal, 2020) The study highlights outbreak of COVID-19 and suggests remarkable genomic resemblance of 2019-nCoV with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) with similar pandemic history in 2002. Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) has been established by the World Health Organization (WHO) with strategic objectives for public health to curb its impact on global health and economy. Ali, S. A., Baloch, M., Ahmed, N., Ali, A. A., & Iqbal, A. (2020). The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)—An emerging global health threat. Journal of Infection and Public Health.
68. (Sharif, 2020) The policy study highlights that the COVID-19 pandemic could possibly force the region to re-think its political, strategic and development priorities for addressing the fragility of its structural weaknesses as well as the straitjacket of geo-politics. The regional economic stakes in South Asia are mounting, particularly from China, East Asia and the Middle East. A combined regional private investment, coupled with large youth cohorts and the unstoppable rise of digital technology could reflect the status-quo in South Asia. Sharif, H. (2020). India, Pakistan and the Pandemic: Community of Shared Future?
69. (Hamdullah Khadim Sheikh, Tanzila Arshad, Zainab Sher Mohammad, Iqra Arshad, & Mohtasheemul Hassan, 2020) This study evaluated the structure of SARS-CoV-2 related, recently mapped, atomic structure of nsp10/16 proteins for docking with some known drug molecular structures at pH 7 and 5. The azo -N=N- and -COOH derivatives molecules were selected. The molecules showed good binding energy with nsp10/16 protein at both pH levels. These molecules can act as protein- nucleic acid interface (PNAI) inhibitor drug molecules and can be used in combination with polymerase and protease inhibitors for treatment of SARS-CoV-2. Sheikh, H. K., Arshad, T., Mohammad, Z. S., Arshad, I., & Hassan, M. (2020). Protein-nucleic acid interface (PNAI) inhibitor drug molecules for SARS-COV-2.
70. (Aslam, Sheikh, & Zia, 2020) The study reviews policy impact of COVID-19 on energy and power sectors in Pakistan. Pakistan has observed 15% drop in electricity demand during COVID-19 as compared to the value of same month in previous year. This indicates a negative consequence at the expense of many lives, un-employment, and an economic downfall. Aslam, H., Sheikh, N., & Zia, R. (2020). Policy Review Impact assessment of COVID-19 on Energy and Power Sector of Pakistan.
71. (Sherin, 2020) The study highlights preventive measures to be adopted to combat COVID-19 pandemic. Sherin, A. (2020). Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A challenge of protecting the general population and health-care workers. KHYBER MEDICAL UNIVERSITY JOURNAL, 12(1), 4-5.
72. (Syed & Sibgatullah, 2020) The study has used SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Recovered) model to predict the magnitude of the COVID-19 epidemic in Pakistan and compared the numbers with the reported cases on the national database. The study predicted that Pakistan could hit peak number of infectious cases on May 26th, 2020 and by June 24th, 2020, 90% of the population will have become infected with the virus if policy interventions seeking to curb this infection are not adopted aggressively. Syed, F., & Sibgatullah, S. (2020). Estimation of the Final Size of the COVID-19 Epidemic in Pakistan. medRxiv.
73. (M. T. Tahir-ul-Qamar et al., 2020) The study designed an effective multi-epitope based vaccine (MEV) against SARS-COV-2. Seven antigenic proteins were taken as targets and different epitopes (B-cell, T-cell and IFN-γ inducing) were predicted. Molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analysis demonstrated a stable and strong binding affinity of MEV with human pathogenic toll-like receptors (TLR), TLR3 and TLR8. Codon optimization and in silico cloning of MEV ensured increased expression in the Escherichia coli K-12 system. Designed MEV could be a potential candidate for further vaccine production process against COVID-19 but it needs experimentally validation. Tahir-ul-Qamar, M. T., Rehman, A., Ashfaq, U. A., Awan, M. Q., Fatima, I., Shahid, F., & Chen, L.-L. (2020). Designing of a next generation multiepitope based vaccine (MEV) against SARS-COV-2: Immunoinformatics and in silico approaches. bioRxiv.
74. (Tahir-ul-Qamar, Alqahtani, Alamri, & Chen, 2020) The study analyzed the viral 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) enzyme sequence having proven drug discovery target in the case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The study constructed 3D homology model of 3CLpro and screened it against a medicinal plant library containing 32,297 potential anti-viral phytochemicals/traditional Chinese medicinal compounds. The study revealed that the top nine hits might serve as potential anti- SARS-CoV-2 lead molecules for further optimization and drug development process to combat COVID-19. Tahir-ul-Qamar, M., Alqahtani, S. M., Alamri, M. A., & Chen, L.-L. (2020). Structural basis of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro and anti-COVID-19 drug discovery from medicinal plants. Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis.
75. (Jawaid, 2020) The study explores those statements of the ProphetSAW which reflects his personal wisdom. Though whole military campaign and diplomacy was a result of hisSAW wisdom, the focus in this paper is on health sciences, safety, and social sciences with relevance to COVID-19 related measures. Jawaid, M. (2020). Wisdom of Prophet MuhammadSAW.
76. (Zia & Farooq, 2020) The study has carried out simulations of a system dynamic epidemic spread model in different possible situations. The simulation, not only captures the model dynamic of the spread of the virus, but also, takes care of population and mobility data. The model is calibrated based on epidemic data and events specifically of Pakistan, which can easily be generalized. The study concludes that even with rigorous social distancing and testing strategies and for longer time (even beyond one year), the spread would be significant (in tens of thousands). Zia, K., & Farooq, U. (2020). Covid-19 outbreak in Pakistan: Model-driven impact analysis and guidelines. arXiv preprint arXiv:2004.00056
77. (A. Javed et al., 2020) The study reports the complete genome sequencing of SARS-CoV2 from National University of Science & Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan. This will open up new avenues in tracing the evolutionary origin of SARS-CoV2 that infected Pakistani patients and will be useful in comparative genome analysis. The project has been completed in collaboration with Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) Rawalpindi, and Charite-Berlin Germany. The sequence was published through National Genome Data Centre China, on March 25, 2020, making it the first genome sequence of SARS-CoV2 to be published from Pakistan. Javed, A., Niazi, S. K., Ghani, E., Saqib, M., Janjua, H. A., Corman, V. M., & Zohaib, A. (2020). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 isolate SARS-CoV-2/human/PAK/Gilgit1/2020, complete genome (Publication no. Available from NIH-NLM GenBank Retrieved April18, 2020, from NCBI-NLM-NIH
78. (Zainab et al., 2020) The study reports the complete genome sequencing of SARS-CoV2 from Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Zainab, T., Shamshad, S., Noureen, A., Malik, A., Asad, M. J., & Rizvi, K. A. (2020). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 isolate SARS-Cov-2/human/PAK/Manga1/2020, complete genome (Publication no. Available from Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi GenBank Retrieved April 19, 2020, from NCBI-NLM-NIH
79. (Hashmi, Ajmal, & Ahmad, 2020) The study reports partial gene cdc results from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 isolate SARS-CoV-2/human/PAK/IBGE/2020 ORF1ab polyprotein, 3'-to-5' exonuclease region, (ORF1ab) gene cds from Institute of Biomedical & Genetic Engineering, 24-Mauve area, G-9/1, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Hashmi, A. H., Ajmal, M., & Ahmad, N. (2020). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 isolate SARS-CoV-2/human/PAK/IBGE/2020 ORF1ab polyprotein, 3'-to-5' exonuclease region, (ORF1ab) gene, partial cds (Complete Genome) (Publication no. Available from Institute of Biomedical & Genetic Engineering, 24-Mauve area, G-9/1, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan GenBank Retrieved April 19, 2020, from NCBI